(44) A review of the most
popular scientific theories of the world.
4. The hypothesis of the Big Bang and the inflationary theories as
postulated by George Gamow and Alan Guth, etc.
The inflationary (or new inflationary) theory
- Comments: The 'Big Bang" and the 'inflation of the universe' never
4. The hypothesis of the Big Bang and the inflationary theories as
postulated by George Gamow and Alan Guth, etc.
In the Big Bang model, the universe expands with
violent force. Like a loaf of rising raisin bread, this homogeneous and
isotropic expansion spreads its inner concentrated contents all over. But,
the description of its inflationary aspect is much beyond that. It is a
kind of brain-freezing and mind-stretching description of the happenings,
and its related figures may scatter the wits of a thoughtful person if he
really tries to conceive the logicality of the event. To start with: Try
to imagine that after the (Big Bang) Planck time, when the universe was
trillions of times smaller than a proton, the energy contained in it may
have inflated it to a span of 100,000 light-years, and that also in less
than a trillion-trillionth of a second (one light-year = 365 x 24 x 60 x
60 x 186,000 miles).
There are certain technical drawbacks of this theory:
How did it start? They don’t know. How was it controlled? They don’t know.
What was the character and kind of the prime energy? They don’t know. Why
did it start? They don’t know. Why didn’t it start earlier? They don’t
know. And what is the ultimate destiny? They don’t know. Like this there
are hundreds of questions to which these theories give no answer.
In 1948 George Gamow with his two colleagues created a
theory that the universe began with the explosion or outburst of an
extremely condensed matter. They called it ‘ylem.’ Its density was a
billion times more than that of water, and the temperature was 100 billion
Kelvin. They called it the Hot Big Bang or Big Bang.
The Big Bang theory was based on the
discovery of the constantly expanding universe by Hubble. It doesn’t
explain at all how it started. After a presumed start, it says what
happened after that. Their hypothetical condensed matter ‘ylem’ was in a
‘big squeeze’ and it was in an extremely tiny form. The hypothesis of the
theory is like this:
1/100th second up to 1 second. The
highly concentrated ylem exploded and it began to expand very fast. The
particle/antiparticle pairs such as neutrino/antineutrino,
electron/positron and nucleon/antinucleon (neutrons and protons are called
nucleons) appeared and annihilated each other to form photons. (Since
quarks were not postulated to exist until 1964, they are not mentioned in
this theory.) According to this theory there should have been exactly
equal number of particles and antiparticles in the universe, and thus, in
this procedure, the formation of atoms was not possible, because the
formation of the atoms needs variation in the nature, size and the
quantity of the particles. (But the observed universe is almost entirely
made up of particles only, and this is one of the biggest drawbacks in the
elementary Big Bang theory.)
The inflationary (or the new inflationary) theory.
According to the findings of the scientists, the
universe of today has a large scale uniformity to a greater extent in the
distribution of the matter, and the second thing is that the 2.7K
temperature is found almost everywhere in the observed universe (called
the cosmic microwave background radiation) in a homogeneous style. It was
the presumption of some scientists that the Big Bang style of expansion of
the universe could not have produced such a uniform effect. So, in 1980, a
new theory called the inflationary theory was introduced by Alan
Guth which he presented in a seminar and wrote in his articles in the
scientific journals. The main unresolved issue of this theory was that it
didn’t definitely show how the inflation would stop. Andrei Linde at
Moscow University and Paul Steinhardt at the University of Pennsylvania
worked on this theory and tried to compromise the inflation problem by
modifying the properties of the hypothetical higgs field. By 1982 the new
or revised inflationary theory was introduced. Since then some more
scientists added their revisions and corrections to the theory. The final
book “The Inflationary Universe: The Quest for a New Theory of Cosmic
Origins” by Alan Guth came out as late as 1997.
The inflationary idea seems to be taken
from the blowing of a balloon when a boy excitedly blows it very fast in
the beginning but when he is a little out of breath he blows it slowly.
The inflationary theory, which is a kind of big insert in the Big Bang
theory, cuts in from the very beginning to only a fraction of a second,
then it follows the normal Big Bang pattern.
A figure 10-43
second was created as an ad hoc assumption and was called the ‘Planck
time’ which was the starting time of the universe. 10-43
second means, ‘a decimal point followed by 42 zeros and 1,’ which is a
tenth of a trillion-trillion-trillion-millionth of a second. The
hypothesis of the theory is like this:
They presumed that there was some kind of eternally
existing symmetrical grand unified space in which the Big Bang or the
first inflationary explosion happened. There was no space-time-matter
of our kind as we observe today. Our space-time configuration
started with a single singularity when a condensed unknown super energy or
super force of unknown (limitless) potency exploded. With the explosion,
the ‘space’ was formed, the ‘time’ started, and the space along with the
energy began to expand with a great force.
The inflation was momentary, between 10-36 to 10-32 second only, and then it abruptly (or gradually) stopped.
The inflation may have been of at least 50 orders of magnitude, by a
factor of 1050, or even more.
Depending upon the initial size of the micro-universe, it may have
expanded up to about 100,000 light years across in less than 10-32 of a second. In hypothesizing the inflation, a
hypothetical ‘higgs field’ throughout the space with high density
(hypothetical) higgs particles was used to boost the inflation.
to 1 second. The temperature tremendously drops
as an effect of the inflation which jitters the situation; a second phase
transition occurs, inflation stops and the field weakens. The
hypothetical higgs particles (which have no use now) hypothetically decay
into lighter particles and the remaining energy of the false vacuum
converts into radiation. The energy that was in the false vacuum state of
the space, now discharges its anti-gravitational pull and resumes the
state of a normally expanding universe which they call the ‘true vacuum’
state. Afterwards the expansion of the universe continues as in the
standard Big Bang concept.
At the end of inflation, the inflationary theory ran
into an abrupt phase transition from an extreme anti-gravitation field
(false vacuum) to the normal gravitation field (true vacuum). It used the
probability factor of the quantum mechanics to justify this transition
which was not very appealing. So, in 1982, the new inflationary theory
was introduced which was simply a revision of the phase transition
situation where, instead of an ‘abrupt’ change after the false vacuum, a
‘gradual’ transition was imagined. That was all.
The inflationary theory has a number of unfounded
hypotheses. Just think of a negligible photon, and again try to think
of something which is trillions of times smaller than that. That
negligible-looking thing, the prime energy, explodes, and within 10-32
of a second it stretches up to trillions and trillions and trillions of
times bigger, and then it becomes the whole universe. It is a fact that
the physical science has never ever known the existence of any such
Alan Guth’s “The Inflationary Universe” (1997) appears
to be more or less like a dinner table talk because quite frequently it
gives the descriptions like: dinner with his friends, a shopping spree,
buying a condominium, playing with his little son, the fracture of his
father’s hip bone and things like that, which are of a personal domestic
nature. However, he writes in his book on page 184 that the numbers (10-52)
shown in Figure 10.6 are not at all well determined. Again on
page 208 he says, “The higgs fields that drive the inflation are a
theoretical invention, so the nature of these fields cannot be deduced
from known physics.” Figure 10.6 (p. 185) of Guth’s book represents
that within 27.7 hours the microscopic universe would have expanded from
its tiniest microscopic form (10-52
meter) to 10,000 light years across. He also says, “For a typical GUT,
this transition occurs at a temperature in the vicinity of 1029K…
The center of a hot star, for example, is only about 107K.”
Guth further says, “The energy density of false vacuum
would be very high… Converted to an equivalent mass density, a typical
number might be 1080
grams per cubic centimeter. This density is so
enormous, about 65 orders of magnitude larger than the density of an
atomic nucleus… The energy density is dominated by the mass of the
particles, which, according to special relativity, is equivalent to an
energy as determined by E = mc2
(p. 170). The false vacuum has the peculiar property that its energy
density remains constant as it expands.” (p. 171)
There are a lot of pure speculations in that theory,
just like: the Grand Unified Theory, grand unified force,
the super force, higgs field and higgs particles, and false vacuum
(anti-gravitational) energy etc.
There are a number of questions to which the creation
theories of the modern science have no proper answer. For example: How
could anything appear from pure void? Who created the pure void? Who
determined the sequence of evolution (because energy has no mind)? How was
the space evolved (because physicists don’t accept space as an energy and
a ‘void’ cannot expand or evolve)? Who regulates the safe formation of the
galaxies without collision? When there were evenly spread out clouds of
gases everywhere in the beginning of the universe, why are there varying
sizes and shapes of galaxies? Why didn’t they evolve exactly the same way?
How and why did these bodies in the space have a different speed and angle
of rotation; and so on.
Comments: The ‘Big Bang’ and the ‘inflation of the universe’ never
There could be a whole book on such discussions but
here I will give you a few basic points to show their impracticality.
Gamow, in his Big Bang theory, assumed that an
extremely tiny ball of pure neutrons (ylem) just appeared out of the blue,
exploded, and became the most sophisticated systematized orderly universe.
There is a popular example of evenly rising raisin bread in this
reference. Even a child knows that when his mom makes homemade bread, it
rises. But there is someone to make the dough and then to start the
oven. Then, who created the ylem, and who started the explosion and the
expansion of the ylem? These are the basic unsolved questions of this
The inflationary theory tells that: (a) The
inflation of the space itself contained the prime energy (which can exist
at different energy levels from a false vacuum to a true vacuum level).
(b) Its energy density (the mass ) was 1080
grams per cubic centimeter, (c) it had 1029K
temperature, (d) it was 10-52
meter in size at 10-36 second,
and (e) that energy density remained constant during the inflation. Every
aspect of this statement appears to be bizarre and unfounded. Unfounded in
this sense that it ignores the established laws of the physical science
and evades the limits of the particle physics; and bizarre in this sense
that it gives such giant figures of subtlety, density and temperature
etc., which are beyond the comprehension of a human mind.
Space. Space is an all around continuum existence.
It is not formed of any kind of particle. Physical science does not know
anything about its characteristics. Even Einstein didn’t understand the
characteristics of the ‘space,’ that’s why first he added and then he
subtracted the cosmological constant term from his equations which was
called the biggest blunder of his life. Then how could the theorists say
that ‘the space’ was also evolved as an effect of the first outburst of
the prime energy. Space is not such a thing that could be evolved,
inflated or stretched. Physicists don’t count the space itself as
an energy, and no scientist in the world has ever tried to inflate the
void/space in his lab and to shoot an electron within a few meters of
space to run for a much longer time than it requires to cross the actual
length of the experimental tunnel. The scientists of Princeton Plasma
Physics Laboratory have succeeded to generate extremely high temperatures
up to about 108K as an
experiment, but they have never tried to stretch ‘the space’ in the lab.
Then, how is it said that the universe, along with the space, inflated
and is still expanding? This is the first unscientific approach of this
Heat. Heat is generated by domestic means,
or through a generative process, or in an experimental lab, or in the
space itself by annihilation, or by the thermonuclear reaction of the sun.
The heat energy in its initial dormant form is ‘no heat’ which could be
measured. Hold a match box in your hand and you are not burned. Only when
you ignite it, then it produces the heat wave and it could be strong
enough to burn down a house or create an historical event like the Great
Fire of London. You drink trillions of hydrogen atoms in the form of cold
refreshing water, but an ignited chain reaction of atomic fusion in a
hydrogen bomb could eliminate a small town. So, the heat that could be
measured in Kelvin does not exist on its own, it is produced. How did then
a 1029K heat temperature exist
when there was not a single atom or a photon or even a particle? (1029K
temperature is almost a trillion-trillion times greater than the center of
a medium size star.) Such theories defy the laws of the particle physics.
Cooling reaction. It’s a law that heat moves
towards the colder region. But if there is no colder region in the
vicinity, the heat would maintain its own temperature, it wouldn’t drop.
Guth says that the energy density (of the matter having
a mass of 1080 grams per cubic
centimeter) remains constant as it expands. Now think of the
inference of this statement. When the energy density remains exactly
the same during the inflation, how could the assumed temperature drop?
It cannot. It will exactly remain the same; and, in that case, there would
be no phase transition, and thus, no transition to normality, which they
call the transition to true vacuum; and thus, no creation of the universe;
just an oven of 1029K
temperature with no atoms, and inflating to unknown number of light years
across. This may be the implication of the inflationary theory. Could you
imagine the practicality of this hypothesis which is the modern popular
theory of the cosmologists of the world?
The mass and the size of the original microscopic
universe. Further bewildering is Guth’s imagination of the 10-52
meter size and the 1080 cubic
centimeter mass of the energy density of the microscopic universe which he
calls the super force. Accordingly, the 10-52
meter- size of the first form of the matter
comes to: a tenth of a trillion-trillion-trillionth part of the size of
one proton; and the 1080
cubic centimeter mass of the same thing comes
to: a hundred thousand trillion-trillion-trillion-trillion-trillion
times greater and denser than an atomic nucleus. Relax a few minutes,
and just try to imagine about that unimaginably tiniest thing and its
unbelievable mass…, and you will yourself understand the total
impracticality of such a creation theory of the modern science.
The expanding universe. Take one more example of
the expanding universe. It has been discovered that all the galaxies and
clusters are moving away from each other, but not at exactly the same
rate. Normally those that are at longer distance are moving faster than
those that are at shorter distance.
The Hubble law says that distance and velocity are
proportional, which means that the space is not expanding, only the
different bodies of the cosmos have different velocity which is
proportional to their distance. Just like two boys are running a
20-minute race, the fast runner covers a longer distance and the slow
runner covers a shorter distance. Their speed of running and the distance
covered by them has a proportion. If you know the speed and the distance
covered, you can calculate the length of time. But the question is, how
did the bodies of the cosmos get the velocity, and why do they all have
different velocity? Were they thrown by some force that had a mind to
throw all of them with different speed? These are all unanswered
situations. So we see that these theories remain only as the
speculations of the intellectual mind. They do not establish the true
facts of the cosmos.
The topics of creation and
evolution are beyond the limits of human understanding. So, in this
reference, whatever would be the product of a material mind, it would be
faulty and incomplete. A theoretical astrophysicist at the University of
Chicago, David Schramm says, “Whenever you are at the forefront of
science, one-third of the observational results always turn out to be
wrong.” (Time, March 6, 1995, p. 78)
But the question is: When scientists know the
shortcomings of their professional findings, and they realize that their
means are incapable of probing into the deep secrets of the nature, then
why don’t they (who speculated the theory of evolution of life on the
earth, or the formation of the earth planet and the evolution of the
universe) accept the controlling power of God instead of creating new
concepts like the Big Bang, or the inflationary theory, or a fish
becoming a frog and a dinosaur becoming a bird, etc.? Why do they have so
much neglect for God when they face a great blockage at every step of
their experiments and when their inner conscience itself knows that
‘nature’ doesn’t have a mind of its own so it must be the work of the
supreme Divine power (God), because the nature itself cannot manifest such
an ingenious creation of the universe on its own?