dynasties of Magadh after the Mahabharat war and the important historical
personalities (Gautam Buddh, Chandragupt Maurya, Jagadguru
Shankaracharya, and Vikramaditya).
To determine the dates of the dynasties of the kings of Magadh up to the Andhra dynasty, we have taken the authority of the
Bhagwatam. The currently available Puranas,
Vishnu Puran, Vayu Puran, Matsya Puran and Brahmand Puran also give the
chronology of the dynasties of Magadh but their descriptions differ to
some extent (the reason has been explained earlier). However, in the first
four dynasties the descriptional discrepancy is very nominal and the two
important personalities of Bhartiya history, Buddh and Chandragupt Maurya,
happened to be during this period. For Gupt dynasty, which comes
after Andhra dynasty, and for the individual reigning periods of certain
kings of Shishunag and Maurya dynasty, we have taken the figures of
Kaliyug Rajvrittant of Bhavishya Puran which still survives in Narayana
The Bhagwatam doesn’t give the details of the ninth
Gupt dynasty. It only says ‘the seven Abhiras’ which means the seven kings
will be of the subordinate class of people. Matsya Puran also says that,
after the last king (Puloma) of
Andhra dynasty, his servant will take over the kingdom and his family will
become the ruler of Magadh. There will be seven kings in that dynasty.
We have taken its details from Kaliyug Rajvrittant.
There were seven kings in the Gupt dynasty: (1) Chandragupt
Vijayaditya (ruling period 7 years), (2) Samudragupt Ashokaditya
Priyadarshin (51 years), (3) Chandragupt II Vikramaditya (36 years), (4)
Kumargupt Mahendraditya (42 years), (5) Skandgupt Parakramaditya (25
years), (6) Nrasinghgupt Baladitya (40 years) and (7) Kumargupt II
Vikramaditya (44 years). The total reigning period was 245 years. Thus,
the total number of years of all the nine dynasties of Magadh is 2,811 +
245 = 3,056 years, which comes to (3139 - 3056) 83 BC.
Gautam Buddh (b. 1894 BC - d. 1814 BC).
His brief life history is given in
Chandragupt Maurya (1541 BC - 1507 BC).
He was the first king of the fourth dynasty of Magadh.
His mother’s name was Mur, so he was called Maurya in Sanskrit which means
the son of Mur, and thus, his dynasty was called Maurya dynasty. A pious,
learned and determined brahman, Chanakya, also known as Kautilya,
who didn’t have a pleasant appearance but had an intelligent brain,
managed to terminate the existing King Mahapadm Nand and his eight sons
and made Chandragupt the King of Magadh who was also the legitimate heir
of the throne. The total period of the four dynasties including the Nand
dynasty after the Mahabharat war is 1,598 years (1,000 + 138 + 360 + 100).
Thus, the coronation date of Chandragupt Maurya comes to 3139 - 1598 =
Chandragupt Maurya ruled for 34 years (1541-1507 BC),
his son Bindusar ruled 28 years (1507-1479 BC) and his grandson
Ashokvardhan ruled for 36 years (1479-1443 BC).
Jagadguru Shankaracharya (509 - 477 BC).
The most efficient documentary evidence of
Shankaracharya’s period is the carefully preserved date-wise list of all
the succeeding Shankaracharyas who sat on that religious throne which was
established by Adi (the original) Shankaracharya thousands of years ago;
and that list goes back up to 477 BC. Adi Shankaracharya lived only 32
years so his birth date is 477 + 32 = 509 BC. He had established four
maths. (Math is a religious throne, which is used as a
center for propagating dharm, and whoever sits on that throne,
holds the title of Shankaracharya.) In his last days, Adi Shankaracharya
lived in Kanchi Kamkoti so it is also considered as a math. Dwarika
Sharda Math and Kanchi Kamkoti Math, both have the
complete date-wise record of all the succeeding Shankaracharyas for the
last 2,500 years, but the records of Kanchi Math are more detailed.
Shankaracharya established four peeth (math)
and appointed four sanyasi disciples at those peeth as
Jyotishpeeth at Badrikashram
(also called Jyotirmath)
Sharda Peeth at Dwarika
(also called Dwarika Sharda Math)
Sringeri Peeth, South India
(also called Sringeri Math)
Govardhan Peeth at Puri
(also called Govardhan Math)
Shankaracharya, after establishing the four maths
and spreading the greatness of Sanatan Dharm, came back to South India
and, for the last four to six years of his life, he lived in Kanchi
Kamkoti. Thus, Kanchi Kamkoti is also called the fifth math.
Thus, according to the records of Kanchi Kamkoti Math,
Adi Shankaracharya was born on 2593 Kali era and left this earth planet on
2625 Kali era which comes to (3102 - 2593) 509 BC and (3102 - 2625) 477
BC. The same dates are mentioned in the records of Dwarika Sharda Math
except that they are written in Yudhishthir era.
Vikramaditya (102 BC - 15 AD)
Bhavishya Puran. Vikram era started in 57 BC by
Vikramaditya the Great as a commemoration of his victory upon the
Shaks. There is plentiful literature on Vikramaditya, and in the Bhavishya
Puran itself there are descriptions of Vikramaditya in more than 40
chapters between Pratisarg Parv I and IV. He was a descended Divine
personality. His capital was Ujjain where the temple of Mahakaleshwar is
famous. Pratisarg Parv IV, chapter 1 of Bhavishya Puran says that after
the elapse of a full 3,000 years in kaliyug (3102 - 3000 = 102 BC),
a dynamic Divine personality was born who was named Vikramaditya. He was
very intelligent and loving to his parents. When he was only five years
old he went into the jungles to worship God. After twelve years, when he
came out, God Shiv sent for him a celestial golden throne which was
decorated with thirty-two statues. He then
came (to Ujjain), adored Mahakaleshwar and established an elegant shrine.
Bhavishya Puran further says that the great King
Vikramaditya ruled for one hundred years. Then his son Deobhakt ruled
for ten years and his grandson Shalivahan, who established Shalivahan
Shak era (in 78 AD), defeated the Shaks and ruled for sixty years.
Vikramaditya belonged to Pramar dynasty in which there was another very
powerful King, Bhojraj, who was eleven generations later than Shalivahan.
The Pramar dynasty (which ends with Ganga Singh) is described in the first
chapter of Pratisarg Parv IV.
According to the above descriptions Vikramaditya lived
(5 years + 12 years + 100 years) 117 years (102 BC - 15 AD).
It could be logically guessed that Vikramaditya should have been at
least 45 years old when he totally defeated all the Shaks. According to
Bhavishya Puran he was born in 3000 Kali era; so he established his Vikram
era in (3000+45) 3045 Kali era. Vikram era is 57 BC. Thus, the beginning
of kaliyug comes to 3045 + 57 = 3102 BC.
To sum up:
The dynastic dates of the kings of Hastinapur are the
actual historic records, but the dynasties of Magadh given in the
Bhagwatam or Bhavishya Puran are the predictions by the descended Divine
personality Ved Vyas who reproduced all the Vedas and Puranas before 3102
BC. The dynastic periods of both, Hastinapur and Magadh, (up to
Vikramaditya) coincide with only a difference of 24 years in 3,000 years
of records which is almost negligible.
It was the greatness of the predictions that all the
events of the history happened the same way as predicted. There could be a
difference of a few years (but not in hundreds) in the actual dynastic
dates of the individual kings and the predicted dates, because the actual
historic happening is also affected by the accumulated existing karmas
and the general quality of the consciousness of the people of the world.
So there is a likelihood of some difference, but not a lot.
The total number of years of the first eight dynasties
of Magadh (as mentioned earlier) is 2,811 years, and the total number
of years of the same eight dynasties as described in Bhavishya Puran
Kaliyug Rajvrittant is also exactly the same (2,811 years) except some +
or - differences in its details. For example: there is a difference of 6
years in the first four dynasties which is almost negligible. Thus,
adding 245 years of the ninth Gupt dynasty to 2,811 comes to 3,056 years
from the Mahabharat war which is (3139 - 3056) 83 BC.
After the downfall of Gupt dynasty the kingship of
Magadh ended and it went under the subordination of Vikramaditya of Ujjain
(Malva). Although the kings of Gupt family had defeated the Huns several
times, the Shaks were still powerful in their attacks. They were finally
defeated by Vikramaditya, and thus the Vikram era was established in 57
BC. One hundred and thirty-five years later, another powerful king,
Shalivahan, again abolished the Shaks from India, and, in this way, the
Shalivahan Shak era started in 78 AD. After that, the regal power of India
was divided into several kingships and the Rajpoot kings ruled India for
1,107 years when Mohammad Gori invaded Delhi (Hastinapur) in 1192 AD and
became the king.
That was the period when a number of stories of the
bravery and sincerity of the Rajpoots were composed and were
enthusiastically sung as folklore in the towns and the villages, and many
history books were also written at that time, out of which only a few are
available nowadays. The rest of them filled the trash bins of the British
rulers of those days.
When Muslims took over Delhi, they started to suppress
Hindu religion and faith. They ruled for 565 years when in 1757 Clive’s
forces crushed and killed the Nawab and in this way the British regime was
established in Bengal, the richest province of India.
The British had come to India (Calcutta) as traders
(East India Co.) in 1690 and with their diplomatic skill, they established
their regime in 1757, starting from Calcutta (Bengal) and spreading up to
Benares, Mysore and Poona, which invoked the patriotism of Indian souls
that resulted in the general revolution for independence in 1857. But,
because of certain internal reasons, it didn’t succeed and it resulted
into a full fledged British rule that dignified the Queen with the title
of the Empress of India. Then, the English education was preferenced in
our education system which was designed to passively induce their beliefs
in our educated community.
In 1918, however, an agreement was drawn to solace the
burning hearts of the Indians demanding the independence of India with a
promise to start a democratic rule, but it was never properly implemented
and the second world war broke out in 1939, shaking the whole world and
exhausting the ‘friendly nations’ (India, England and France) for six
years. It resulted in a state of despair for the British to reconstruct
the damages of their own country, and thus, they had to leave India after
190 years of their rule by favoring us with the independence which they
declared on August 15, 1947. They took some time to finish the paperwork
and finally left India on January 26, 1948. Now (in 1999) it is the 52nd
year of India’s independence.
We must try to understand that our history is not the
history of worldly kings and queens who entangled themselves in fulfilling
the needs of their passion. The major part of Bhartiya history is the
history of eternal Sages and Saints and such Divine personalities who
descended on the earth planet to show us the path of eternal happiness
that has no limits. They revealed the scriptures to give us an
understanding of the deceptive illusions of the world and the unimaginable
Blissfulness of God Who is the true friend of every soul; and, as long as
they lived on the earth planet, they remained as the practical guiding
light for all the true aspirants of God’s love for the whole world.
Bhagwatam (mahatmya, chapter six) says that after the ascension of Krishn and the elapse of thirty
years of kaliyug, on the ninth waxing moon day of Bhadrapad, which is September 3072 BC, Shukdeo
started explaining the Bhagwatam. After 200 years of the elapse of
kaliyug, Saint Gokarn again recited and explained the Bhagwatam in the
month of Asadh (July); and after 230 years of the elapse of kaliyug,
Sankadik Paramhans started relating the Bhagwatam on the ninth waxing day
of Kartik which is October 2842 BC.